Road traffic accidents are a serious but an avoidable problem that cause both life and economic
loss worldwide. There are some common factors such as income, education and health that affect
both socioeconomic development and road traffic fatality rates of countries. Examination of these
factors separately during the analyze of road traffic fatality rates might cause misleading results
due to the relationships between stated variables. Thus, using an inclusive parameter like Human
Development Index (HDI), may provide more realistic results. In the current study, the
relationship between HDI, its dimensions (GNI per capita, expected years of schooling, mean
years of schooling and life expectancy at birth) and road traffic fatality rates are examined.
Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in order to obtain results about the effects of each
dimension of HDI. Results showed that all dimensions of HDI negatively predicted road traffic
fatalities. Results have been discussed according to related literature and suggestions have been
made for further research and applications.